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References and Sources

  1. Bolin CA. Leptospirosis posing new threat for canine hepatic, renal disease. DVM In Focus. 2002;33(6):31-34.
  2. Ward MP. Seasonality of canine leptospirosis in the United States and Canada and its association with rainfall. Prev Vet Med. 2002;56(3):203-213
  3. Ross L, Jakowski R, Bolin C, Kiupel M. Retrospective immunohistochemical detection of Leptospira in dogs with renal pathology. Int J Appl Res Vet Med. 2011;9(4):324–331.
  4. Ghneim, George S., et al. "Use of a case-control study and geographic information systems to determine environmental and demographic risk factors for canine leptospirosis".Veterinary research 38.1 (2007): 37-50.
  5. Sykes, Jane E., et al. 2010 ACVIM small animal consensus statement on leptospirosis: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 25.1 (2011): 1-13.
  6. Gautam, Raju, et al. "Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000–2007." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 237.3 (2010): 293-298.
  7. Grayzel, Sharon E., and Emilio E. DeBess. "Characterization of leptospirosis among dogs in Oregon, 2007–2011." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 248.8 (2016): 908-915.


Lepto carriers can reside in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Take our risk assessment to see your dog's risk level.


Lepto is largely vaccine preventable. Most vaccines have 4 serovars to fight against today's most common serovars.


Read about real pets that were diagnosed with leptospirosis.